BC Ferries is another organization that has realized energy savings. It did this with the help of BC Hydro education programs and incentives, retrofitting lighting and installing radiant heat in a workshop and toll booths. These efforts yielded an energy savings of over megawatt hours in one year. That represents enough energy to power 31 average homes over the same time period BC Hydro, However, water is not evenly distributed across regions, nor is it equally available all seasons of the year BC Ministry of Environment, n. This is especially evident on Salt Spring Island, a popular tourist destination with numerous small accommodation properties.
The island experiences water shortages in the peak summer season when lake and groundwater levels drop and demand is highest. They were pleasantly surprised to find that several properties had already taken steps, including installing low-flow toilets and flow restrictors on shower heads, requiring minimum two-night stays which reduces the amount of laundry required , and offering visitor education campaigns. As discussed in Chapter 4 on food and beverage services, there is increasing awareness among the general public about the importance of healthful eating.
The Island Chefs Collaborative ICC is an organization that supports connections between local agriculture and the food and beverage industry. Its vision is a local and sustainable food and agriculture system for Vancouver Island. Farming mass amounts of one crop is known as monoculture , a practice that depletes the soil and encourages the use of pesticides and fertilizers for increased production.
The soil in which food is grown is becoming less rich as commercial fertilizers focus only on building specific nutrients. Combined with the long distances that foods are shipped sometimes causing nutrients to be depleted , consumers are becoming wary of commercially produced foods University of Minnesota, In , two BC-based journalists, J. MacKinnon and Alisa Smith, began chronicling the challenges of only eating food produced within miles of their homes, as part of a serial of articles for the Tyee.
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Created through a partnership between destination marketing organizations in the Fraser Valley communities of Abbotsford, Chilliwack, Agassiz-Harrison, and Maple Ridge-Pitt Meadows, the Circle Farm Tour brings awareness to farming practices and farmland conservation while creating a collaborative tourism product. Self-guided tours are made possible through a series of branded maps, brochures, and a central website.
Organizations such as FarmFolk CityFolk, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to food sustainability in the province, have been promoting farm-to-table dining for over 20 years. In in BC, the amount of garbage generated was equivalent to kilograms per person. One very effective means of reducing garbage taken to the landfill is implementing a food waste program in which food scraps are placed in a green bin and collected by the community for composting. The program met resistance from the BC Restaurant and Foodservices Association, which viewed the initiative as placing an extra cost and being a logistical challenge for members Nagel, Individual restaurateurs were hopeful, however, that the city would help businesses by increasing pickup and expanding the efficiency of their other recycling programs Robinson, Green Key Global is an international certification body that evaluates the accommodations and meetings industries on the basis of their sustainable initiatives.
Headquartered in Ontario, its Green Key Eco-Rating Program awards from 1 to 5 keys to hotels, with 47 properties currently holding the highest rating. Green Key Global conducts an on-site assessment and provides operators with suggestions for improving their sustainability efforts. Awarded keys are then used as marketing and promotional tools.
A similar program serves the meetings and events sector. Organizations join such programs voluntarily. Generally, an audit consists of an independent third party visiting a business or operation and reviewing its practices against a checklist of standards; those that pass earn the certification or accreditation.
It offers ongoing support and consultation so that operators may work to achieve a high level of environmental sustainability. For more information, visit Green Tourism Canada : www. Whether it be through carbon offsetting, energy and water conservation, increased use of local and organic food products, or official accreditation programs, the tourism industry has a number of options for lessening the impacts of businesses on the physical environment.
On a global scale, the tourism industry needs to recognize its release of significant carbon emissions and explore ways to reduce these while maintaining the mobility needed for travel. On a local scale, tourism stakeholders need to recognize the risk they pose to the destruction of local pristine environments and take steps to ensure the sustainability of their operations. Proponents claim that it will add a world-class skiing resort product to the economy.
Opponents argue that the environmental impacts are not worth the limited economic return it offers, including threatening grizzly bears and other sensitive species Lavoie, The planning process for the resort has taken over 20 years with initial permits issued in In December , the project was delayed again as the government asked for more time to evaluate whether the newly poured foundations for lodge buildings were located in avalanche zones Shaw, Conduct your own research about Jumbo Mountain Resort using a minimum of three sources, and answer the questions below.
Communicating the Aesthetic, Wellbeing and Economic Benefits of Nature in the Built Environment.
BC Ferries saves energy, from lighting to radiant heat in tollbooths. British Columbia Ministry of Environment. Ministry divisions. Retrieved from www. Water stewardship. Brundtland, G.
United Nations. Retrieved from: www. David Suzuki Foundation. Purchasing carbon offsets: A guide for Canadian consumer, businesses, and organizations. Environmental Assessment Office. FarmFolk CityFolk. About Us.
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Font, X. Environmental certification in tourism and hospitality: progress, process and prospects. Tourism Management, 23 3 , Government of BC. Mountain resorts.
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How B. Hui, Stephen. Georgia Straight. Lavoie, J. Jumbo Glacier Resort threatens grizzlies. Troy Media. Lelenicz, M. Ecolabels in tourism. Agricultural Management, 14 4 , Mercer, D. Tourism and resource management. Hall, A. These tools could contribute to developing new plant varieties that can adapt to warming of 1. However, biosafety concerns and government regulatory systems can be a major barrier to the use of these tools as this increases the time and cost of turning scientific discoveries into ready applicable technologies Andow and Zwahlen, ; Maghari and Ardekani, The strategy of reducing enteric methane emissions by ruminants through the development of inhibitors or vaccines has already been attempted with some successes, although the potential for application at scale and in different situations remains uncertain.
A vaccine could potentially modify the microbiota of the rumen and be applicable even in extensive grazing systems by reducing the presence of methanogenic micro-organisms Wedlock et al. Selective breeding for lower-emitting ruminants is becoming rapidly feasible, offering small but cumulative emissions reductions without requiring substantial changes in farm systems Pickering et al. Technological innovation in culturing marine and freshwater micro and macro flora has significant potential to expand food, fuel and fibre resources, and could reduce impacts on land and conventional agriculture Greene et al.
Technological innovation could assist in increased agricultural efficiency e. Technological and associated management improvements may be ways to increase the efficiency of contemporary agriculture to help produce enough food to cope with population increases in a 1. Ecosystem restoration. Biomass stocks in tropical, subtropical, temperate and boreal biomes currently hold , , , Gt CO 2 , respectively. Conservation and restoration can enhance these natural carbon sinks Erb et al. Recent studies explore options for conservation, restoration and improved land management estimating up to 23 GtCO 2 Griscom et al.
Mitigation potentials are dominated by reduced rates of deforestation, reforestation and forest management, and concentrated in tropical regions Houghton, ; Canadell and Schulze, ; Grace et al. Variation of costs in projects aiming to reduce emissions from deforestation is high when considering opportunity and transaction costs Dang Phan et al. However, the focus on forests raises concerns of cross-biome leakage medium evidence, low agreement Popp et al. Reducing rates of deforestation constrains the land available for agriculture and grazing, with trade-offs between diets, higher yields and food prices Erb et al.
Forest restoration and conservation are compatible with biodiversity Rey Benayas et al. There is low agreement on whether climate impacts will reverse mitigation benefits of restoration Le Page et al. Emerging regional assessments offer new perspectives for upscaling. While there are indications that land tenure has a positive impact Sunderlin et al.
Local benefits, especially for indigenous communities, will only be accrued if land tenure is respected and legally protected, which is not often the case Sunderlin et al. Although payments for reduced rates of deforestation may benefit the poor, the most vulnerable populations could have limited, uneven access Atela et al. Community-based adaptation CbA. There is medium evidence and high agreement for the use of CbA.
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The specific actions to take will depend upon the location, context, and vulnerability of the specific community. The integration of CbA with ecosystems-based adaptation EbA has been increasingly promoted, especially in efforts to alleviate poverty Mannke, ; Reid, Despite the potential and advantages of both CbA and EbA, including knowledge exchange, information access and increased social capital and equity; institutional and governance barriers still constitute a challenge for local adaptation efforts Wright et al.
Wetland management. In wetland ecosystems, temperature rise has direct and irreversible impacts on species functioning and distribution, ecosystem equilibrium and services, and second-order impacts on local livelihoods see Chapter 3, Section 3. The structure and function of wetland systems are changing due to climate change.